Noni Research and Studies

The following 3rd party published noni research and studies on noni and noni juice benefits are available on PubMed.com

You can also find information on noni health related research at the UH Noni Website

NONI RESEARCH: 2008

J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Feb 12;115(3):502-6. The effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) on the immune system: Its molecular mechanisms of action. Palu AK, Kim AH, West BJ, Deng S, Jensen J, White L.

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) in vitro and in vivo in mice. In vitro, Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) and Noni fruit juice concentrates (NFJC) (1, 5mg/mL) potently activate cannabinoid 2 (CB2), but inhibit cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors in a concentration-dependant manner. In vivo, oral administration of TNJ ad libitum for 16 days decreased the production of IL-4, but increased the production of IFN-gamma. These results suggest that noni modulates the immune system via activating of the CB2 receptors, and suppressing of the IL-4, but increasing the production of IFN-gamma cytokines. It may also exert beneficial immunomodulation effects in conditions involving inadequate immune responses.

Poster # 208. Joint Northwest and Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society. June 17, 2008. Park City, Utah, USA. Noni juice increases athlete endurance via antioxidant mechanism. Brett J. West, C. Jarakae Jensen.

Noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit juice was traditionally used in Polynesia to promote endurance on long ocean voyages. Further, in vivo tests have revealed that noni juice can significantly increase endurance. Two human clinical trials in non-athletes have revealed that noni juice can improve physical functioning and fatigue indices of quality of life surveys. Chemical analysis, as well as human clinical research, has revealed that no chemical stimulants, illicit drugs, or otherwise prohibited substances occur naturally in noni fruit juice. It was, therefore, proposed that the notable antioxidant activity of noni juice is the mechanism responsible for the anti-fatigue (or pro-ergogenic) effect. To test this hypothesis, commercial noni juice from French Polynesia was evaluated in 40 highly trained athletes (ages 18-27 yr). The athletes were divided into two groups of twenty each, with one group consuming noni juice and the other consuming blackberry juice as controls. Each subject consumed 100 mL BID of either noni juice or blackberry juice for three weeks. For each athlete, the time-to-exhaustion in the treadmill test (increasing resistance), blood analyses, and urine chemiluminescence analyses were performed at day 0, day 10, and day 21 of the test. By day 21, the time-to-fatigue of the noni juice group was increase by 22% (p<0.05), whereas no increase was observed in the blackberry juice group. Blood analyses did not reveal any significant effects, with the exception of increased mean lactate level in the blackberry juice at day 21. Chemiluminescence decreased by 25% in the noni juice group (p<0.05), demonstrating a significant decline in lipid peroxidation, due to the antioxidant activity of noni juice. This confirms the hypothesis that improvement in physical performance and energy is associated with noni juice's antioxidant properties. Further, the ability of noni juice to improve endurance in highly trained young athletes is demonstrated.

NONI RESEARCH: 2007

J Sci Food Agri. 2007 November; 87(14): 2583-2588. Safety tests and antinutrient analyses of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) leaf. West BJ, Tani H, Palu AK, Tolson CB, Jensen CJ.

Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) leaves have a documented history of food use. However, previous safety and antinutrient studies are absent. The current investigation was conducted to assess the utility of noni leaves as food. RESULTS: No evidence of toxicity or differences in weight gain were observed in acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity tests of ethanol–water (1:1 v/v) and hot-water extracts of noni leaves in mice at doses of 2000, 200, and 20 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively. Acute systemic anaphylaxis tests of the ethanol–water (4:1 v/v) and hot-water extracts were negative. Further, leaf proteins were readily digested in simulated gastric fluid. Tannic acid concentrations in frozen and dried leaf were 1.6 and 25.8 g kg−1, respectively. Phytic acid was not detected in the raw leaf (

Phytotherapy Research. 2007 Nov; 21(11):1100-1101. Evaluation of the ergogenic potential of noni juice. Ma DL, West BJ, Su CX, Gao JH, Liu TZ, Liu YW.

Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice is an increasingly popular health food with many reported benefits, such as antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Traditionally, noni fruit was used by Polynesian to combat fatigue. Also, clinical studies have revealed that noni juice consumption improves quality of life scores relating to physical functioning and energy levels. To further evaluate the ergogenic (anti-fatigue and endurance promoting) potential of noni juice, aged mice were pretreated orally with increasing doses (10, 20, and 40 mL/kg body weight) of Tahitian Noni® Juice (TNJ) and then compared to young and aged controls in the forced swim test and rotarod test. The average times of all TNJ dose groups were significantly longer than the aged controls in both the swim test (36 to 45 %) and the rotarod test (59 to 128 %), and were similar to those of the youth controls. This demonstrates not only an improvement in endurance but also in balance and flexibility. These results confirm the reported use of noni juice to combat fatigue, improve endurance, and increase overall physical performance.

Phytomedicine 2007; 14:517–522. Noni as an anxiolytic and sedative: A mechanism involving its gamma-aminobutyric acidergic effects. Deng S, West BJ, Palu AK, Zhou BN, Jensen CJ.

Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is increasing in worldwide popularity as a food or dietary supplement with versatile health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Noni fruit on anxiety symptoms in vitro. To this end, a competitive GABAa receptor-binding assay was developed. Our preliminary study indicates that the methanol crude extract of Noni fruit showed significant affinity to the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAa) inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors, and displayed 75% binding inhibition of the agonist radioligand [3H] muscimol at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Further experiments demonstrated that the MeOH extract, and its BuOH and H2O partitions, exhibited IC50 values of 22.8, 27.2, and 17.1 mg/ml, respectively, in the GABAa-binding assay. Experimental results with Noni fruit indicate the presence of competitive ligand(s), which may bind to the GABAa receptor as an agonist, and thus induce its anxiolytic and sedative effects. The study provides an in vitro rationale for one of Noni’s versatile and traditional uses. In addition, an HPLC fingerprint profile of the methanolic extract of Noni fruit has been established for quality control purpose.

J Nat Prod. 2007 May;70 (5): 859-862. Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Constituents of the Fruits of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Collected in Tahiti. Deng S, Palu AK, West BJ, Su CX, Zhou BN, Jensen JC.

A phytochemical study of the fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia) collected in Tahiti led to the isolation of two new lignans, (+)-3,4,3’,4’-tetrahydroxy-9,7’α-epoxylignano-7α,9’-lactone (1) and (+)-3,3’-bisdemethyltanegool (2), as well as seven known compounds, (-)-pinoresinol (3), (-)-3,3’-bisdemethylpinoresinol (4), quercetin (5), kaempferol (6), scopoletin (7), isoscopoletin (8), and vanillin. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 3, 6, and 8 were isolated for the first time from noni fruit. Compounds 1-8 were shown to inhibit 5- and/or 15-lipoxygenase, with IC50 values ranging from 0.43 to 16.5 μM. Compound 5 exhibited weak inhibitory activity toward cyclooxygenase-2.

NONI RESEARCH: 2006

International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 57(7):556-558, 2006. Mineral variability among 177 commercial noni juices. Brett J West, Charles B Tolson, Randy G Vest, Summer Jensen, Travis G Lundell.

The industry-wide mineral profile of commercial noni juices was determined by analyses of 177 competing brands by Tahitian Noni International laboratories. A large degree of variability was found in the concentrations of nine minerals, revealing that not all noni juices are the same. Many brands of noni juice have a different nutrient profile than that published by the European Union for TAHITIAN NONI® Juice. While potassium was found to be the most prominent mineral, its concentration in most commercial brands is of minor nutritional significance, contrary to claims made in some previous publications that were based only on the analysis of one minor brand name. (view original abstract athttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17162334&query_hl=3&itool=pubmed_docsum).

Journal of Food Science, Vol. 71(8):R100-106, 2006. A safety review of noni fruit juice. B. J. West, C. J. Jensen, J. Westendorf, L. D. White

A literature review and data from news studies are presented to describe the safety of noni fruit juice. Several preclinical safety tests and human clinical studies have revealed no adverse health effects, even at very high doses. The data from these studies support the continued use of noni juice as a safe healthy food. (original article available athttp://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00164.x )

World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 12(22) pp. 3616-3619. June 2006 Noni juice is not hepatotoxic. B. J. West, C. J. Jensen, J. Westendorf

Noni juice has been approved as a safe food within the European Union. A few cases reports suggesting a role of noni juicein acute hepatitis, due to anthraquinones, is not supported by chemical analyses, several preclinical safety studies, and a clinical human safety study in 96 volunteers. Liver function tests in these studies revealed no adverse liver effects, even at very high doses. Anthraquinones in noni fruit are of the wrong type and occur in quantities too small to cause any negative liver effects. A large amount of data reveal that noni juice is not hepatotoxic. (original article available at http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/12/3616.asp )

The 232nd American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA. September 10-14, 2006. Evaluation of the allergenic potential of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf proteins, AGFD 158. Brett J West and Afa Palu.

Analysis of proteins from noni leaves reveals that they are easily digested by pepsin, a digestive enzyme in the stomach that breaks down proteins. A characteristic of non-allergen food proteins is that they are readily digested by pepsin. This provides further evidence for the safe use of noni leaves as food. (view original abstract athttp://oasys2.confex.com/acs/232nm/techprogram/P950562.HTM)

The 232nd American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA. September 10-14, 2006. Noni contains competitive ligand(s) binding to GABAa agonist receptors as an anxiolytic. Shixin Deng, Afa K Palu, Bing-Nan Zhou, Jarakae C. Jensen, Brett J West. AGFD 67.

For the first time, the biological mechanism of noni fruit’s effect to help relieve stress and anxiety (anxiolytic), calm and relax, improve mood and sense of well being is reported. Noni fruit extracts effectively bind to gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAa) receptors. These are inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors found in the brain. Such binding activity is well known to produce sedative and anxiolytic effects. (view original abstract at http://oasys2.confex.com/acs/232nm/techprogram/P995203.HTM)

The 232nd American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA. September 10-14, 2006. Morinda citrifolia L. Noni: An angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. AGFD 130. Afa K. Palu, Bing-Nan Zhou, Shixin Deng, Brett J. West

The possible biological mechanism by which noni juice may help control blood pressure is reported. In vitro (meaning in test tube conditions) tests found that increasing concentrations of noni juice resulting in more inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and more blocking of angiotensin (AT) receptors. Both ACE and AT receptors are involved in raising blood pressure, and inhibiting their activity may result in the lower of high blood pressure. (view original abstract athttp://oasys2.confex.com/acs/232nm/techprogram/P974821.HTM

The 47th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy. August 5-9, 2006. Arlington, Virginia. Constituents of the fruit of noni and their Selective inhibitory effects of cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme. Shixin Deng, Afa Palu, Bing-nan Zhou, Chen Su, Jarakae Jensen, Brett West

Several phytochemicals have been isolated from noni fruit which selectively inhibit COX-2 in vitro, indicating potential anti-inflammatory activity. Of these phytochemicals, two novel compounds (not known to exist anywhere previously) have been discovered. (view original abstract at www.phcog.org/AnnualMtg/2006/papers/P_263.pdf)

IVth International Conference on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants from French Overseas Regions. Tahiti. July 10-13, 2006. p. 12. The inhibitory effects of Morinda citrifolia L. noni on phosphodiesterase enzymes: The possible mechanisms for increasing energy and improving diabetic conditions. CIPAM 2006 Abstracts. Afa K. Palu, Chen Su, Bing-Nan Zhou, Brett West, Shixin Deng, Jarakae Jensen

Noni fruit juice has in vitro inhibitory effects on phosphodiesterase enzyme 3 (PDE-3), DPP-IV and aldose reductase enzymes. Noni juice is also an in vitro agonist of P2Y receptors, and is an in vitro PTP1B receptor antagonist. All these effects indicate the possibility of noni juice to help utilize fat and sugar stores more efficiently, as well as limit free radical production associated with exercise fatigue. This data suggests drinking noni juice may improve overall energy, shorten excerise recovery time, and help maintain appropriate blood glucose levels.

IVth International Conference on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants from French Overseas Regions. Tahiti. July 10-13, 2006. p. 28. The inhibitory effects of Morinda citrifolia L. noni on phosphodiesterase enzymes: The possible mechanisms for increasing energy and improving diabetic conditions. CIPAM 2006 Abstracts. Chen Su, Brett J West, Afa K. Palu, Bing-Nan Zhou, Jarakae Jensen, John Fritz, Anne Hirazumi-Kim

Noni-ppt, the ethanol insoluble precipitate from noni juice, was found to have anti-metastatic activity in mice. The anti-metastatic substance in noni-ppt was purified and found to inhibit the adhesion of tumor cells to tissues. This potentially explains at least one mechanism by which noni juice prevents tumor development in mice.

The 47th Annual Meeting of Society for Economic Botany, Folk Botanical Wisdom; Towards Global Markets. June 5-9, 2006. Final Program, page 71 Morinda citrifolia L. Noni has cholesterol lowering potential Afa Kehaati Palu, Brett Justin West, Jarakae Jensen, Bing-nan Zhou.

Noni fruit juice was found to inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase in vitro. This enzyme is involved in the synthesis of cholesterol in humans. The observed inhibitory action may explain, in part, the mechanism behind the cholesterol lowering effect observed in a human clinical trial. (view the original abstract athttp://www.econbot.org/_organization_/07_annual_meetings/meetings_by_year/2006/pdfs/SEB2006%20Program.pdf)

46th Annual Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention in Association with the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. American Heart Association. Pheonix, Arizona. March 2-5, 2006. The effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice on serum cholesterol and triglycerides in current smokers. Mian-ying Wang, Eric Henley, Jeanette Nolting, Alexandra Cheerva, Jarakae Jensen, Gary Anderson, Diane Nowicki, Stephen Story.

A double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in current heavy smokers revealed that drinking one to four ounces of TAHITIAN NONI® Juice (TNJ) for one month had a beneficial effect on blood lipids. These results indicate, for the first time, that TNJ is able to lower total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in current smokers. (view the meeting report at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3038030)

Eur J Gastroenterology & Hepatology (2006), 18:575-577 Noni juice protects the liver Claude J. Jensen, Johannes Westendorf, Mian-Ying Wang, David P. Wadsworth

This was a published correspondence to the journal editor refuting one of their recent published articles by Millonig et al. alleging acute hepatitis from a patient’s consumption of noni juice. Jensen et al. pointed out that there is substantial published data which shows that noni juice actually protects the liver from damage by liver toxic substances. Further, the authors discuss several problems with the article by the Millonig group: 1) no re-exposure test was conducted to confirm the observed toxicity results, 2) the article incorrectly cited support for the patient’s elevated liver enzymes from an earlier published article, which in fact contains research that shows pre-exposure to noni fruit juice protects the liver of experimental rats, 3) the Millonig group postulated that anthraquinones in the juice may have produced the liver toxicity. However, published reports confirm that anthraquinones are not present in the juice. Also, the absence of anthraquinones in Tahitian Noni® Juice was a prerequisite for the European Union’s 2003 approval of noni as a novel food, 4) the Austrian Agency for Health and Nutrition Safety conducted an independent analysis of Tahitian Noni® Juice with the conclusion, “the above described product has no toxic effects on the liver”, and 5) a trial was conducted with 96 human volunteers who consumed up to 750 ml of Tahitian Noni Juice per day for 6 weeks. Blood chemistry analyses, including liver enzymes, showed no abnormalities. In the reply by Millonig to this article, she admits that no proof of causality could be established.

International Congress and 54th Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research, Helsinki, Finland, Aug. 29–Sep. 2, 2006 Phytoestrogenic Activity of Morinda citrifolia L. Fruits Simla Basar, Hassan Iznaguen, Andre Zeglin, Johannes Westendorf

Following a brief presentation of the growing and traditional health-benefits usages of Morinda citrifolia, the authors focused on the estrogenic effects found in Noni fruit puree. They found that a hexane extract of the puree produced a dose-dependent replacement of the natural hormone estradiol from its receptor. The compound responsible for this estrogenic activity was called CPx. Spectral analyses confirming its presence included UV, 1H NMR, and 13C-Pendant NMR.

J Vet Intern Med 2006. 20(3):756; Abstract #165 Tahitian Noni® Equine Essentials™: A Novel Anti-inflammatory and a COX-2 Inhibitor Which Regulates LPS-induced Inflammatory Mediator Expression in Equine Neonatal Monocytes J. Xu, A. C. McSloy, B. K. Anderson, R. G. Godbee, S. F. Peek, B. J. Darien

Given the broad range of therapeutic effects attributed to noni (Morinda citrifolia), the authors tested their hypothesis that Tahitian Noni® Equine Essentials® would modulate endotoxin (microbial toxin that can cause inflammation) inflammatory responses in equine foal monocytes (young blood cells) by regulating COX-2 expression (an enzyme involved in inflammation). The test foals were fed orally 60 ml of Tahitian Noni® Equine Essentials®, twice daily for 60 days. Blood samples were taken at days 10 and 60, from which the peripheral monocytes were isolated and separated into test and control groups. The test group was then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 2 hrs. The treated foals showed a dramatic fold reduction in COX-2, TNF-ά (tumor necrosis factor), ILs-1β, -8, and -6 (interleukins, protein mediators between white blood cells) mRNA (messenger RNA), compared to the untreated controls. A similar, but less dramatic, reduction was observed at 60 days. These results indicate that foals receiving the Tahitian Noni® Equine Essentials® may experience promising anti-inflammatory therapy.

3rd European Workshop on Equine Nutrition: Nutrition and Feeding of the Broodmare; Campobasso, Molise Univ., Italy; Jun 20-22, 2006 Tahitian Noni® Equine Essentials® Regulates LPS-Induced COX-2 and Cytokine Expression in Equine Neonatal Monocytes: A Preliminary Study J. Xu, J. Cai, R. G. Godbee, S. F. Peek, B. J. Darien

This study was to investigate the effects of TAHITIAN NONI Equine Essentials on endotoxin-induced COX-2 and cytokine expression in the monocytes of equine foals at ages 0,10, and 60 days. Compared to the controls, the results showed that LPS-stimulated monocytes from the treated foals had reduced levesl of COX-2, TNF-ά (tumor necrosis factor), ILs-1β, -8, and -6.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2007 Dec;99(12):737-738. Tahitian Noni(R) juice is not hepatotoxic. West BJ, Berrio LF.

Toxicology and human clinical safety tests have led to EU approval of TAHITIAN NONI® Juice as a safe food. The conclusion of safety cannot be applied to non-EU approved juices, whose composition and identity are unknown.

NONI RESEARCH: 2001 - 2005

11th Ann. Res. Conf. on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Poster Session. July 16-17, 2001 Morinda citrifolia and Cancer Prevention Wang, M-Y

In an in-vivo study (conducted in a living cell or organism), TAHITIAN Noni Juice reduced DNA adducts (chemical changes in DNA that result from damage), caused by the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz (a)-anthracene (DMBA). TNJ showed stronger antioxidant activities (natural body chemicals or drugs that reduce oxidative damage, such as that caused by free radicals) compared to Vitamin C, Pycnogenolâ, and Grape seed powder. The antioxidant activities of TNJ may contribute to the mechanism of reducing DNA adduct formation.                                                                                                                 

7th International Conf. on Eicosanoids and Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Disease, Poster Session. Oct. 14-17, 2001 Protective Effect Of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) On Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury In Female Sd Rats Wang, M-Y

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice showed hepatic protection in rats’ damaged liver caused by CCl4. The antioxidant level was examined and the results indicated that TNJ may protect liver from damage by scavenging free radicals and blocking lipid peroxidation.

J. Agricultural Food Chemistry, 49(9):4478-4481, 2001 Flavonol Glycosides and Novel Iridoid Glycoside from the Leaves of Morinda citrifolia Sang, S., Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, Re., Badmaev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.

One new iridoid glycoside (defensive compounds produced by plants) and five known flavonol glycosides (which function as antioxidants) were isolated from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia. Their antioxidant (free radical scavenging) potential was measured, and all compounds showed antioxidant activity.  

J. Nutrition, 131:3151S-3152S, 2001 Morinda citrifolia and Cancer Prevention Wang, M-Y., Su,  C., Nowicki, D., Jensen, J., Anderson, G.

The authors report laboratory evidence supporting the possible prevention of cancer in rats by noni juice. They were able to demonstrate a reduction of DNA adduct formation in the heart, lung, liver, and kidney of laboratory female rats by 26%, 41%, 42%, and 80%, respectively. More dramatic results were reported for male rats. The authors theorize that the blockage of DNA adducts (compounds that attach themselves to DNA, which scientists believe are then involved in carcinogenesis) is largely responsible. Additionally, strong antioxidant activity (scavenging of free radicals) of noni juice was also demonstrated.

Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 952:161-168, 2001 Cancer Preventive Effect of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) Wang, M-Y, Su, C.

Preliminary data indicated that 10% TAHITIAN NONIâ Liquid Dietary Supplement in drinking water for one week was able to prevent DMBA-DNA adduct formation. The antioxidant activity of TNJ was compared to the effects of vitamin C, grape seed powder, and Pycnogenolâ at the daily dose recommended by the manufacturers in the US RDA. The results suggest that inhibition of DNA adduct formation and the antioxidant activity of TNJ may contribute to the cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia.

Annals of New York Academy of Science, 952:161-168, 2001 Cancer Preventive Effect of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) Wang, M-Y and Su, C.

Preliminary data indicated that 10% TAHITIAN NONI? Liquid Dietary Supplement in drinking water for one week was able to prevent DMBA-DNA adduct formation. The antioxidant activity of TNJ was compared to the effects of vitamin C, grape seed powder, and Pycnogenol at the daily dose recommended by the manufacturers in the US RDA. The results suggest that inhibition of DNA adduct formation and the antioxidant activity of TNJ may contribute to the cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia.

7th International Conference on Eicosanoids and Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Disease, Poster Session, Oct. 14-17, 2001 Protective Effect of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Female SD rats Wang, M-Y

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice showed hepatic protection in rats? damaged liver caused by CCl4. The antioxidant level was examined and the results indicated that TNJ may protect liver from damage by scavenging free radicals and blocking lipid peroxidation.

Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry, 49(9):4478-4481, 2001 Flavonol Glycosides and Novel Iridoid Glycoside from the Leaves of Morinda citrifolia Sang, S., Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, R.E., Bad,aev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.

One new iridoid glycoside and five known flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia. Their antioxidant potential was measured and all compounds showed antioxidant activity.

Cancer Research, 61(15):5749-5756, 2001 Two Novel Glycosides From the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Inhibit AP-1 Transactivation and Cell Transformation in the Mouse Epidermal JB6 Cell Line Liu, G., Bode, A., Ma, W.Y., Sang, S., Ho, C.T., Dong, Z.

Two novel glycosides, 6-O- (beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, were extracted from noni fruit juice. Experimental results indicated that both compounds were effective in suppressing cell transformation in cancer.

7th International Conference on Eicosanoids and Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Disease, Poster Session, Oct. 14-17, 2001 A New Selective COX-2 Inhibitor: Morinda citrifolia (NONI) Su, C.

In vitro study showed that TNJ is a selective COX-2 inhibitor. In comparison to aspirin, Indomethacin, and Celebrex?, the selective inhibition is comparable to Celebrex?, a well-known selective COX-2 inhibitor.

11th Annual Research Conference on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Poster Session, July 16-17, 2001 Morinda citrifolia and Cancer Prevention Wang, M-Y.

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice reduced DNA adducts caused by 7,12-dimethylbenz (?)-anthracene (DMBA). TNJ showed stronger antioxidant activities compared to Vitamin C, Pycnogenol?, and Grape seed powder. The antioxidant activities of TNJ may contribute to the mechanism of reducing DNA adduct formation.

Journal Natural Products, 64(6):799-800, 2001 Iridoid Glycosides from the Leaves of Morinda citrifolia Sang, S, Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, R.E., Badmaev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.

A new iridoid glucoside named citrifolinoside A, was isolated from Morinda citrifolia leaves along with the known iridoids asperuloside and asperulosidic acid.

Organic Letters, 3(9):1307-1309, 2001 A New Unusual Iridoid with Inhibition of Activator Protein -1 (AP-1) from the Leaves of Morinda citrifolia L. Sang, S, Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, R.E., Badmaev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.

From the leaves of Morinda citrifolia, a new unusual iridoid, named citrifolinoside (1), showing significant inhibition of UVB-induced AP-1 (Activator Protein-1, which is involved in cancer induction) activity in cell cultures, has been isolated.   

XI Biennial Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research International, Jul. 16-20, 2002 Protective Effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Plasma SAR and LPO in Current Smokers Wang, M-Y., Cheerva, A., Su, C., Jensen, J., Nowicki, D., Anderson, G., Jensen, S., Fritz, J.W.

In this study, the authors examined the protective effects of Tahitian Noni® Juice on plasma superoxide anion radicals (SAR) and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) in current smokers. These two compounds, or their byproducts, are deleterious to human health, and are known to increase in smokers. A one-month randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial (neither the subjects nor experimenter knew who was receiving the test material or the placebo), was carried out. Sixty-eight subjects were supplemented with two ounces of Tahitian Noni® Juice or placebo twice a day for 30 days. There was no effect on plasma SAR or LPO levels in the placebo group. However, the SAR and LPO levels in the Tahtian Noni® Juice group showed a 27% reduction (p<0.05), and 23% (p=0.05) reduction, respectively. The “p=<0.05” means that the probability of getting different results in a duplicate test would be no greater than 5%. The results indicate that Tahitian Noni brand Juice may protect individuals from oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke, and therefore may help to reduce smoking-related cancer risk.  

8th Biennial Symposium on Minorities, the Medically Underserved and Cancer, Poster Session. Feb. 6-10, 2002 Cancer Preventive Effect of Tahitian Noni® Juice at the Initiation Stage of Carcinogenesis Wang, M-W.

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice reduced DNA adduct formation and exhibited hepatic protection. TNJ’s selective COX-2 inhibition and antioxidant activities may contribute to the mechanisms of both cancer prevention and hepatic protection.

93rd Ann. Meeting, American Assoc. Cancer Res. April 6-10, 2002 Protective Effect of Morinda citrifolia on Hepatic Injury Induced by a Liver Carcinogen Wang, M-Y.

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice showed a protective effect on hepatic injury induced by a liver carcinogen. As a selective COX-2 inhibitor, TNJ may protect liver by suppressing COX-2 enzyme.

J. Food Chemistry, 78(2):227-231, 2002 Antioxidative Activity of Extracts from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) Root, Fruit and Leaf Zin, Z. M., Abdul-Hamid, A., Osman, A.

This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts from different parts of Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.), including leaf, fruit and root. Methanol and ethyl acetate were used as solvents and antioxidative effects measured by a ferric thiocyanate method (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid test (TBA). Roots showed the highest activity of the parts tested. The results suggest that several compounds contribute to antioxidative activity of different parts of Mengkudu. Activity in the roots may be due to both polar and non-polar compounds but, in the leaf and fruit, only to non-polar compounds.  

Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 23 (12):1127-1141, 2002 Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A Literature Review and Recent Advances in Noni Research Wang, M-Y, West, B.J., Jensen, C.J., Nowicki, D., Su, C.X., Palu, A.K., Anderson, G.

Morinda citrifolia L (noni) has been used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over 2000 years. Included in the anti-oxidant information are the results of a human clinical study in which heavy smokers, who drank TAHITIAN NONI® Juice for one month, showed a significant 23% and 27% reduction of free radicals in their blood. In order to reveal the nutritional and medicinal value of the noni plant, and to summarize scientific evidence that supports the Polynesians’ claim, the authors provide a literature review and recent advances in noni research. Phytother Res., 16(7):683-685, 2002 Antitubercular constituents from the hexane fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) Saludes, Jonel P., Garson, M.J., Franzblau, S.G., Aguinaldo, A.M.

A crude ethanol extract and hexane fraction from Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) show antitubercular activity. The major constituents of the hexane fraction are E-phytol, cycloartenol, stigmasterol, -sitosterol, campesta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol and the ketosteroids stigmasta-4-en-3-one and stigmasta-4-22-dien-3-one. E-Phytol, a mixture of the two ketosteroids, and the epidioxysterol derived from campesta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol all show pronounced antitubercular activity.  

Integrative Cancer Therapies, 1(2):110-120, 2002 From Polynesian Healers to Health Food Stores: Changing Perspectives of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae) McClatchey, W.

Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. This is a literature review and recommendations for doing additional cancer research on noni.  

Proc West Pharmacol Soc., 45:76-78, 2002 Preliminary investigation of the anti-inflammatory properties of an aqueous extract from Morinda citrifolia (noni) McKoy, M.L, Thomas, E.A., Simon, O.R.

The results of this study clearly indicated the anti-inflammatory potential of both orally and ip administered noni fruit juice extract. The results also suggest that there is a high probability for therapeutic effectiveness of the fruit juice against some inflammatory conditions as claimed by folklore practitioners in Jamaica.   

Journal of Food Chemistry, 78(2):227-231, 2002 Antioxidative activity of extracts from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) root, fruit and leaf Zin, Z.M., Abdul-Hamid, A., Osman, A.

This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts from different parts of Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.), including leaf, fruit and root. Methanol and ethyl acetate were used as solvents and antioxidative effects measured by a ferric thiocyanate method (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid test (TBA). Roots showed the highest activity of the parts tested. The results suggest that several compounds contribute to antioxidative activity of different parts of Mengkudu. Activity in the roots may be due to both polar and non-polar compounds but, in the leaf and fruit, only to non-polar compounds.  

American Society of Microbioloogy, Annual Meeting, May 2002, Salt Lake City, UT Preliminary Evaluation of the Antifungal Activity of Extracts of Morinda citrifolia Linn. Gerson, S.

Extracts of Morinda citrifolia Linn. exhibit significant antimicrobial and anti fungal activity against various strains of fungi and bacteria A. niger, C. albicans, E. coli, S. aureus, and T. mentagrophytes.  

93rd Annual Meeting, American Association for Cancer Research, April 6-10, 2002 Protective Effect of Morinda citrifolia on Hepatic Injury Induced by a Liver Carcinogen Wang, M-Y.

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice showed a protective effect on hepatic injury induced by a liver carcinogen. As a selective COX-2 inhibitor, TNJ may protect liver by suppressing COX-2 enzyme.  

8th Biennial Symposium on Minorities, the Medically Underserved and Cancer, Poster Session, Feb. 6-10, 2002 Cancer Preventive Effect of TAHITIAN NONI® Juice at the Initiation Stage of Carcinogenesis Wang, M-Y.

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice reduced DNA adduct formation and exhibited hepatic protection. TNJ's selective COX-2 inhibition and antioxidant activities may contribute to the mechanisms of both cancer prevention and hepatic protection.  

Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 23(12):1127-1141, 2002 Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A Literature Review and Recent Advances in Noni Research Wang, M-Y, West, B.J., Jensen, C.J., Nowicki, D., Su, C.X., Palu, A.K., Anderson, G.

Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, antihelminthic, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and immune enhancing effects. Pharmacokinetic study of TAHITIAN NONI® Juice (TNJ) using scopoletin as a marker is included. Allergenicity and toxicity tests of TNJ show it to be safe with a NOAEL of 80 ml TNJ/kg/day. (original article found at http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/23/1127.pdf)     Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 12(11), part 2, (1354S), 2003 Synergistic effect of Tahitian Noni® juice (TNJ) and methylsulfonymethane (MSM) on mammary breast cancer prevention at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats Wang, M-Y, Anderson, G.L., Nowicki, D.   An examination of whether TNJ and MSM have a synergistic effect on mammary breast cancer prevention at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in female SD rats.  

Natural Product Research, 17(5):355-360, 2003 Isolation and Structure Determination of a Benzofuran and a Bis-Nor-Isoprenoid from Aspergillus Niger Grown on the Water Soluble Fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. Leaves Siddiqui, B.S., Sattar Ismail, F.A., Gulzar, T., Begum, S.

The leaves of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new benzofuran and bis-nor-isoprenoid, blumenol C, hitherto unreported from this source. The structures of these have been elucidated through spectroscopic studies and NMR data that are being reported for the first time.  

Journal of Plant Physiology, 160(6):607-614(8), 2003 Regulation of anthraquinone biosynthesis in cell cultures of Morinda citrifolia Stalman, M., Koskamp, A-M., Luderer, R., Vernooy, J.H.J., Wind, J.C., Wullems, G.J., Croes, A.F.

Cell cultures of Morinda citrifolia L. are capable of accumulating substantial amounts of anthraquinones. Chorismate formed by the shikimate pathway is an important precursor of these secondary metabolites. Isochorismate synthase (EC 5.4.99.6), the enzyme that channels chorismate into the direction of the anthraquinones, is involved in the regulation of anthraquinone biosynthesis. Other enzymes of the shikimate pathway such as deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (EC 4.1.2.15) and chorismate mutase (EC 5.4.99.5) do not play a regulatory role in the process. The accumulation of anthraquinones is correlated with isochorismate synthase activity under a variety of conditions, which indicates that under most circumstances the concentration of the branchpoint metabolite chorismate is not a rate-limiting factor. Anthraquinone biosynthesis in Morinda is strongly inhibited by 2,4-D, but much less by NAA. Both auxins inhibit the activity of isochorismate synthase proportionally to the concomitant reduction in the amount of anthraquinone accumulated. However, the correlation between enzyme activity and rate of biosynthesis is less clear when the activity of the enzyme is very high. In this case, a limiting concentration of precursor may determine the extent of anthraquinone accumulation. Partial inhibition of chorismate biosynthesis by glyphosate leads to less anthraquinone accumulation, but also to a reduction in ICS activity. The complexity of the interference of glyphosate with anthraquinone biosynthesis is illustrated by the effect of the inhibitor in cell cultures of the related species Rubia tinctorum L. In these cells, glyphosate leads to an increase in anthraquinone content and a concomitant rise in ICS activity. All data indicate that the main point of regulation in anthraquinone biosynthesis is located at the entrance of the specific secondary route.  

Angiogenesis, 6(2):143-149, 2003 Inhibition of angiogenic initiation and disruption of newly established human vascular networks by juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) Hornick, C.A., Myers, A., Sadowska-Krowicka, H., Anthony, C.T., Woltering, E.A.

We tested the effects of noni juice in a three-dimensional fibrin clot matrix model using human placental vein and human breast tumor explants as sources for angiogenic vessel development. Noni in concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) or greater was highly effective in inhibiting the initiation of new vessel sprouts from placental vein explants, compared with initiation in control explants in media supplemented with an equivalent amount of saline. These concentrations of noni were also effective in reducing the growth rate and proliferation of newly developing capillary sprouts. When used at a concentration of 10% in growth media, noni was able to induce vessel degeneration and apoptosis in wells with established capillary networks within a few days of its application. We also found that 10% noni juice in media was an effective inhibitor of capillary initiation in explants from human breast tumors. In tumor explants which did show capillary sprouting, the vessels rapidly degenerated (2-3 days) in those exposed to media supplemented with 10% noni.  

Phytother Res., 17(10):1158-1164, 2003 Antitumour potential of a polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on sarcoma 180 ascites tumour in mice Furusawa, E., Hirazumi, A., Story, S., Jensen, J.

An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance (Noni-ppt) from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia has been found to possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potentials against the immunomodulator sensitive Sarcoma 180 tumour system. The antitumour activity of Noni-ppt produced a cure rate of 25%-45% in allogeneic mice and its activity was completely abolished by the concomitant administration of specific inhibitors of macrophages (2-chloroadenosine), T cells (cyclosporine) or natural killer (NK) cells (anti-asialo GM1 antibody). Noni-ppt showed synergistic or additive beneficial effects when combined with a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic drugs, including cisplatin, adriamycin, mitomycin-C, bleomycin, etoposide, 5- fl uorouracil, vincristine or camptothecin. It was not beneficial when combined with paclitaxel, cytosine arabinoside, or immunosuppressive anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide, methotrexate or 6-thioguanine. Noni-ppt also demonstrated beneficial effects when combined with the Th1 cytokine, interferon gamma, but its activity was abolished when combined with Th2 cytokines, interleukin-4 or interleukin-10, thereby suggesting that Noni-ppt induces a Th1 dominant immune status in vivo. The combination of Noni-ppt with imexon, a synthetic immunomodulator, also demonstrated beneficial effects, but not when combined with the MVE-2 copolymer, a high molecular weight immunomodulator. It was also not effective when combined with interleukin-2 or interleukin-12.     J. Medicinal Food, 7:343-348, 2004 The Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity of Certain Indian Medicinal Plants In Vitro: A Preliminary Study Jagetia, G.S., Baliga, M.S.

In this in-vitro study, the authors evaluated the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. In terms of potency of scavenging activity, Morinda citrifolia (Noni) ranked 3rd among the 17 plants tested. The authors conclude that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.                                                           

J. Agric. Food Chem., 52(19):5843-5848, 2004 Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia fruits inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation K. Kamiya, Tanaka, Y., Endang, H., Umar, M., Satake, T.

Extracts of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia inhibited arteriosclerosis (thickening and hardening of the arteries) by 88% and 96%. Two novel compounds (americanoic acid A and morindolin) were also isolated. Four other compounds were found to exhibit strong anti-oxidant (scavenging of free radicals) activity. The activity of these compounds is mainly due to their number of phenolic hydroxyl groups (weakly acidic organic compounds, containing one or more atoms of hydrogen and oxygen bonded together).

The Worldnutra, 2004 Conference. Poster Session #30 Total Antioxidant Capacity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products as Affected by Processing and Storage Yang, J., Paulino, R.J., Janke-Stedronsky, S.   

Tropical noni (Morinda citrifolia L) fruits are commercially processed into juice and powders for disease prevention and therapies. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of fresh squeezed noni juice is equivalent to 127 mg ascorbic acid (vitamin C)/100 ml assayed by scavenging the free radical 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy. Two month traditional fermentation decreased the TAC of noni juice by 70%. Noni juice stored at 24°C for 2 months reduced TAC by 80%. Fresh noni juice stored at -18°C for 2 months exhibited no significant changes of TAC. The TAC of Noni powders dehydrated by hot air or freeze drying was reduced by 45% and 20%, respectively.

Hawaii Medical Journal, 63:182-184, 2004 Are immune responses pivotal to cancer patient's long term survival? Two clinical case-study reports on the effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Wong, D.W.W.

There are abundant claims of benefit from cancer patients' use of noni but no well-documented clinical reports in peer reviewed journals. The author examined 2 such claims through interview, and review of medical records and pathology slides. The author concludes that these cases are valuable experiences and hope to stimulate interest in noni research as an important part of adjuvant immunotherapy for cancer.  

Chinese Journal of Physiology, 47(4):169-174, 2004 Effect of juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) on gastric emptying in male rats Pu, H.F., et al.

Male rats were given noni by gavage at levels of 0.25, 1, or 4 mL/kg once per day for 1 or 7 days," explained H.F. Pu and coauthors at National Yang-Ming University in Taipei. The rats in the control group were given water, while the rats in the experimental group were fasted overnight before measurement of gastrointestinal motility. The results suggest that oral noni inhibits gastric emptying in male rats via a mechanism involving stimulation of CCK secretion and CCK1 receptor activation.

J. Nat. Prod., 68:1720-1722, 2005 An Anthraquinone with Potent Quinone Reductase-Inducing Activity and Other Constituents of the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Pawlus, A.D., Su, B-N., Keller, W.J., Kinghorn, A.D.    

The authors first discuss the long history of usage of Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, throughout much of tropical Polynesia, and the Hawaiian Islands. Also, its recent use as a dietary supplement in the United States has greatly increased. Accompanying these increased usages have been numerous beneficial health claims related to arthritis, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and overall health. In this study, the Pawlus group was able to isolate from the fruit of noni an extremely potent and potential cancer preventative, anthraquinone (a type of anti cancer drug). This new anthraquinone was nearly 40 times more potent than a positive control. Furthermore, it demonstrated no discernible cytotoxicity (damage to body cells) at the highest dose tested. In addition, eleven known compounds were also isolated and identified. This is the first report of the isolation of anthraquinones from noni fruits.

J. Nat. Prod., 68:592-595, 2005 Chemical Constituents of the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) and Their Antioxidant Activity Su, B-N., Pawlus, A.D., Jung, H-A., Keller, W.J. McLaughlin, J.L., Kinghorn, A.D.   

The authors report the isolation of 19 phytochemicals (non-vitamin substances in fruits and vegetables that are important for health) from the fruit of noni (M. citrifolia). Two of these phytochemicals are newly discovered, having never been known to exist anywhere prior to this study. They belong to a class known as iridoid glucosides, which are important because of their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. One of the 17 remaining compounds, americanin A, was shown to be a potent anti-oxidant. The chemical names of each of these 19 compounds are also provided.  

TC Duoc Lieu, 10:128-132, 2005  The Effect of Morinda citrifolia Fruit Extracts of Viet Nam on Rat Hepatic Enzyme Metabolism Do Thi Tuyen; Ly Thi Bich Thuy; Nguyen Thi Ngoc Dao,

Morinda citrifolia, known commercially as noni, grows widely throughout the Pacific and is one of the valuable sources of traditional medicines among Pacific island societies. The authors tested the effect of noni fruit extracts of Viet Nam on rat hepatic enzyme metabolism. Noni extracts markedly reduced the pathologic changes observed in CC14-chronically treated rats. It significantly increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity by 31% compared with control model rats, and 38% compared with the untreated controls. The imbalance in lipid metabolism could be the reason for increase in lipid peroxidation. The treatment with noni significantly inhibited the rise of MDA, and improved antioxidant status in CCI4-treated rats. Furthermore, noni fruit extracts significantly increased the P450 activity in comparison with the negative control (especially, P450 reductase NADPH (CPR) activity). 

2005 IFT Annual Meeting, July 15-20 - New Orleans, Louisiana. Session 18E, Nutraceutical & Functional Foods: General I Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni): A dual inhibitor of COX-2/5-LOX Enzymes Palu, A.K., Jensen, C.J., Zhou, B-N., Su, C.

Morinda citrifolia L.(Noni) fruit juice has been used in all of Polynesia for over 2000 years for treatment of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, gout and many other ailments that had been reported in the literature. However, only recently that Noni has been proven scientifically to be efficacious in many of the diseases listed above and much more. Scientists around the world including us are using different types of experiments (in-vitro & in-vivo) to test the antimicro-bial, anticancer, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory effects of Noni. The anti-inflammatory effects of Noni and the Brand TAHITIAN NONI(R) Juice (TNJ) was discovered by Chen Su et al (Wang et al, 2002) from our lab in which they demonstrated that Tahitian Noni fruit juice and TNJ are inhibitors of COX-2 enzymes. The previous discovery has led to the investigation and the subsequent discovery that Tahitian Noni fruit juice and TNJ also affect the lipoxygenase enzymes which are also part of the arachi-donic acid metabolic pathways. Tahitian Noni fruit juice and TNJ are potent inhibitors of 5-LOX and 15-LOX enzymes. Hence, Tahitian Noni fruit juice and TNJ are dual inhibi-tors of both COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes which are potential candidate for neuroprotection, anticancer and anti-inflammation. These inhibitory effects on the arachidonic acid metabolic pathways might explain at least in part why Tahitian Noni fruit juice and TNJ are used as dietary supplements to improve our health naturally. (view original abstract online athttp://ift.confex.com/ift/2005/techprogram/paper_30120.htm).   QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH Official Journal of the International Society for Quality of Life Research 14(9):P-70/1342, 2005 Abstract presented at 12th Annual Conference of the International Society for Quality of Life Research (ISOQOL) Quality of Life (QOL) Assessment in a Phase I Trial of Noni Issell, B.F., Gotay, C.C., Pagano, I. Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI

The objective of this study was to identify the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of noni. Noni fruit extract is a popular dietary supplement that is widely used as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by cancer patients. Twenty-nine patients were assessed. The distribution of performance status, extent of disease and prior treatment did not vary across dose levels. A multilevel regression analysis of noni dose (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 g) and week of study showed a statistically significant [t(35) = 2.84, P = 0.006] decrease in pain interference with activities as measured by question 19 on the EORTC QLQ-C30 scale. Also, consistent marginally significant dose–response effects were found for global health status, physical functioning and fatigue. No effects were found on the BFI and CES-D. No adverse toxic events attributable to noni and no measured tumor regressions were seen. Conclusion: QOL measures may be useful for selecting dosing for subsequent phase II/III efficacy trials, particularly for CAM agents that are commonly used but of unproven value.

NONI RESEARCH: 1996 - 2000

Strang International Cancer Prevention Conference, Poster Session, Nov. 10-11, 2000 Cancer Prevent Effect of Morinda Citrifolia Wang, M-Y

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice reduced DNA adducts caused by 7,12-dimethylbenz (?)-anthracene (DMBA). TNJ showed stronger antioxidant activities compared to Vitamin C, Pycnogenol?, and Grape seed powder. The antioxidant activities of TNJ may contribute to the mechanism of reducing DNA adduct formation.

Journal Natural Products, 63(8):1182-1183, 2000 Novel Glycosides from Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Wang, M., Kikuzaki, H., Jin, Y., Nakatani, N., Zhu, N., Csiszar, K., Boyd, C., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.

Three new glycosides were isolated from Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. They are 6-O- (beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose, 6-O- (beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-O-hexanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose and 3-methylbut-3-enyl 6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 35(2):310-312, 2000 Noni Juice (Morinda Citrifolia): Hidden Potential for Hyperkalemia? Mieller, B., Scott, M.K., Sowinski, K.D., Prag, K.A.

Report of a patient with chronic renal insufficiency who self-medicated with an alternative medicine, noni juice (Morinda Citrifolia). The patient had hyperkalemia. The potassium concentration in noni juice was determined and found to be 56.3 mEq/l, similar to that in orange juice and tomato juice.

J. Trop. Forest Prod., 5:32-38, 1999 Malaysian Tropical Forest Medicinal Plants: A Source of Natural Antioxidants Vimala, S., Adenan, M.I.

A total of 70 samples of different plant parts from 45 species of Malaysian tropical forest medicinal plants was screened for antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity against autoxidation (oxidation by direct combination with oxygen (such as air) at ordinary temperatures) of linoleic acid (an essential fatty acid which cannot be made in the body) in a water-alcohol system. The crude extracts were assayed, and some were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity relative to a synthetic antioxidant. A total of 59 samples from 43 species exhibited high antioxidant activity (more than 90%), 9 showed moderate activity (50 to 90%) while 2 exhibited low activity (less than 50%). The antioxidant activity observed in this study indicates that many of the local tropical medicinal plants possess free radical scavenging compounds that form a natural defense mechanism against activated oxygen damage (free radical mediated damage in stress situations) in plants.

Phytotherapy Research, 13:380-387, 1999 An Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide-Rich Substance from the Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) with Antitumour Activity Hirazumi, A., Furusawa, E.

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) contains a polysaccharide-rich substance (noni-ppt) with anti-tumor activity. Therapeutic administration of noni-ppt significantly increased survival time of tumor bearing mice. Results also suggested the possibility that noni-ppt may suppress tumor growth through activation of the host immune system. Noni-ppt was also capable of stimulating the release of several cytokines from immune cells. Improved survival time and curative effects occurred when noni-ppt was combined with sub-optimal doses of standard chemotherapeutic agents, suggesting important clinical applications of noni-ppt as a supplemental agent in cancer treatment.

Federation of European Biochemical Societies Letters, 12(2-3):173-176, 1999 Stimulation of Ultraviolet-induced Apoptosis of Human Fibroblast UVr-1 Cells by Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors. Hiwasa, T., Arase, Y., Chen, Z., Kita, K., Umeza, Zawa, K., Ito, H., Suzuki, N.

Damnacanthal, from Morinda citrifolia exhibited apoptosis (cell death) in cancer cells. Damnacanthal treated cancer cells showed more DNA fragmentation from ultraviolet irradiation, than cancer cells treated with ultraviolet radiation alone.

Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry, 47:(12):4880-4882, 1999 Novel Trisaccharide Fatty Acid Ester Identified from the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). Wang, M., Kikuzaki, H., Csiszar, K., Boyd, C.D., Maunakea, A., Fong, S.F., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Nakatani, N., Ho, C.T.

Two known glycosides and a novel trisaccharide fatty acid ester were isolated from Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. The novel trisaccharide fatty acid ester was 2,6-di-O- (beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose. The known compounds were rutin and asperulosidic acid.

Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 63(3):201-208, 1998 Jamu Gendong, A Kind of Traditional Medicine in Indonesia: The Microbial Contamination of its Raw Materials and End Products. Limyati, D.A., Juniar, B.L.

Microbial contamination of seven kinds of Jamu Gendong (JG) and their raw materials was conducted. The results showed the samples were heavily contaminated with bacteria, yeast and molds. Similar results were obtained from the plant material constituents of JG. Morinda citrifolia fruit was less contaminated and can be screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, University of Hawaii, Biomedical Sciences (Pharmacology), Dec. 1997 Antitumor Studies of a Traditional Hawaiian Medicinal Plant, Morinda citrifolia (Noni), In Vitro and In Vivo Hirazumi, A.Y.

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) contains a polysaccharide-rich precipitate (noni-ppt) with antitumor activity in the Lewis Lung (LLC) peritoneal carcinomatosis model. Noni-ppt was capable of stimulating the release of several mediators from murine effector cells. The pattern of release of these mediators suggested that noni-ppt may promote both a non-specific and Th1 cell mediated antitumor response. Therapeutic administration of noni-ppt demonstrated significant suppression of S.180 ascites growth in allogenic animals, without being substantially cytotoxic to these cells in vitro. Improved survival time and curative effects occurred when noni-ppt was combined with sub-optimal doses of the standard chemotherapeutic agents.

NONI RESEARCH: 1991 - 1995

Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 49:23-32, 1995 Anti-Microbial Activity and Anti-Complement Activity of Extracts Obtained from Selected Hawaiian Medicinal Plants Lochner, C.P., Burch, M.T., Mower, H.F., Berestecky, J., Davis, H., Van Poel, B., Lasure, A., Vanden Berghe, D.A., Vlietinck, A.J.

Selected plants (including Morinda citrifolia) having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatments of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Several extraction techniques are explained.

Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society, 37:145-146, 1994 Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Intraperitoneally Implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Syngeneic Mice Hirazumi, A., Furusawa, E., Chou, S.C., Hokama, Y.

Morinda citrifolia (noni) juice was shown to have antitumor activity on Lewis Lung carcinoma in mice. The ethanol precipitate (noni-ppt) was not directly toxic to cancer cells. Instead, it acts indirectly by enhancing the host immune system involving macrophages or lymphocytes. Noni-ppt had a beneficial effect when combined with sub-optimal doses of chemotherapeutic agents. This suggests a possibility of clinical application of noni-ppt in cancer treatment.

Master of Science Thesis for Biochemistry, Univ. Hawaii, Dec. 1993 The Isolation and Characterization of a Fluorescent Compound from the Fruit of Morinda citrifolia (Noni): Studies On The 5-Ht Receptor System Sim, H.H.

The isolation and characterization of scopoletin from the fruit of Morinda citrifolia (noni) is presented.

J. Agric. Food Chem., 52(19):5843-5848, 2004 Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia fruits inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation K. Kamiya, Tanaka, Y., Endang, H., Umar, M., Satake, T.

Extracts of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia inhibited arteriosclerosis (thickening and hardening of the arteries) by 88% and 96%. Two novel compounds (americanoic acid A and morindolin) were also isolated. Four other compounds were found to exhibit strong anti-oxidant (scavenging of free radicals) activity. The activity of these compounds is mainly due to their number of phenolic hydroxyl groups (weakly acidic organic compounds, containing one or more atoms of hydrogen and oxygen bonded together).

J. Medicinal Food, 7:343-348, 2004 The Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity of Certain Indian Medicinal Plants In Vitro: A Preliminary Study Jagetia, G.S., Baliga, M.S.

In this in-vitro study, the authors evaluated the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. In terms of potency of scavenging activity, Morinda citrifolia (Noni) ranked 3rd among the 17 plants tested. The authors conclude that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.

Cancer Letters, 73:161-166, 1993 Induction of Normal Phenotypes in ras-transformed Cells by Damnacanthal from Morinda citrifolia Hiramatsu, T., Imoto, M., Koyano, T., Umezawa, K.

An anthraquinone, damnacanthal, was isolated from the chloroform extract of the root of Morinda citrifolia. Damnacanthal induced normal morphology and cytoskeletal structure modification in ras-transformed cancer cells. Thus damnacanthal is a new inhibitor of ras function (which is responsible for these cells becoming cancerous).

NONI RESEARCH: Pre-1991

Planta Medica 56(5):430-434 (1990) Analgesic and Behavioral Effects of Morinda citrifolia Chafique Younos, Alain Rolland, Jacques Fleurentin, Marie-Claire Lahners, Rene' Misslin, and Francois Mortier

Editor's note: this was a study of the roots of Morinda citrifolia.) The traditional therapeutic indications for the use of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) have been investigated. The lyophilised aqueous extract of roots of M. citrifolia was evaluated for analgesic and behavioural effects in mice. The extract did not exhibit any toxic effects but did show a significant, dose-related, central analgesic activity in the writhing and hotplate tests; this effect was confirmed by the antagonistic action of naloxone. Furthermore, administration of M. citrifolia extract at high dosages decreased all behavioural parameters in the two compartment test, the light/dark choice situation test, and the staircase test; together with the induced sleeping time, these results are suggestive of sedative properties.

Science in New Guinea 14(1): I7 (1988) Antibacterial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants of Papua New Guinea A.J. Leach, D.N. Leach, and G.J. Leach

Ten species of plants used by the people of Papua New Guinea to treat external bacterial infections was assessed. Activity was seen in extracts of Morinda citrifolia. The widespread medicinal use of these plants would suggest they do contain pharmacologically active substances.

Journal of the Chemical Society, Pakistan. VOL. 2, NO.2 (1980) Phytochemical Report Isolation of β-Sitosterol and Ursolic Acid from Morinda Citrifolia Linn. Viqar Uddin Ahmad and Shaheen Bano

A crystalline greenish yellow solid was extracted from the fresh leaves of Morinda citrifolia Linn. On recrystallization from methanol, white, shiny crystals were obtained. This compound was identified as ursolic acid. A second substance isolated was β-sitosterol.

Planta Medica, 1979, 36(2): 186-187 Some Chemical Constituents of Morinda citrifolia Oscar Levand and Harold O. Larson

This paper outlines the process of separating several compounds from dried fruit of Morinda citrifolia L. (asperuloside, glucose, caproic and caprylic acids).

Antiseptic 67(3): 167-71 (1970) Preliminary Phytochemical and Pharmacological Study of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. N. Krisha Moorthy and G. Shama Reddy

The total extract of the roots of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. were used as an effective hypotensive agent in a majority of patients treated by Dang Van Ho in 1955. A preliminary report on the phytochemical and pharmacological effects of Morinda citrifolia roots and leaves is presented. Extraction procedures to isolate anthraquinones from the roots are given.

Pacific Science 4: 167-183 (1950) The Antibacterial Properties of Some Plants Found in Hawaii O.A. Bushnell, Mitsuno Fukuda, and Takashi Makinodan

Extracts from 17 plants were tested on 5 strains of pathogenic enteric bacilli. Morinda citrifolia was effective against the intestinal pathogens (Ps. aeruginosa, M. pyogenes and E. coli). The extract from the ripe Morinda citrifolia fruit was shown to have moderate antibacterial properties against Salmonella typhosa, Salmonella montevideo, Salmonella schottmuelleri, Shigella paradys, BH and Shigella paradys.